Table of Contents for Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz I-IV

21 Jan 2010 14:15 - 21 Apr 2017 13:57 #1589 by Daniel
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Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz

Volume I

1. Responding to Kedusha
• Custom of the Geonim and Rishonim;
• Order of response originating from the Rabbi’s;
• Ruling (strictness/exactness) of the Rosh et al;
• The source for the custom of Spanish and Yemenite Jewry;
• The ancient Polish custom;
• Enactment of the Taz;
• Enactment of the Arizal;
• Lithuanian custom;
• Custom of the Gra;
• German (Ashkenaz) custom;
• Responding to Kedusha on Shabbos and Yom Tov.

2. אחד הוא אלקינו
• Origin of the text;
• Answering objections;
• The custom in later generations;
• אני ה' אלקיכם

3. וישמחו בך ישראל אוהבי שמך
• The earliest text;
• German (Ashkenaz) custom in earlier generations;
• The custom of Spanish Jewry: וינוחו;
• The Spanish Cabbalists et al;
• Removing the text of וישמחו; the argument being that there is no ‘joy’ (שמחה) on Shabbos;
• France and Provence; Italy; Bohemia, Austria, Moravia, Hungry; Poland;
• The Chassidic movement;
• Lihuania;
• Germany (Ashkenaz) from the time of the Maharil and onwards;
• Beginning to push off “וישמחו” in Ashkenaz;
• Defense of “וישמחו” by later authorities (Acharonim);
• The community of Frankfurt on the Main.

4. גואלנו ה'
• Source of the original Ashkenaz custom;
• Objection to the French custom;
• Spread of the French custom;
• Surprise concerning “lost hints/implications”;
• Guarding the Ashkenaz (German) custom in later generations;
• “צור ישראל” from the teachings of the Chasidei Ashkenaz.

5. Donning a Tallis due to the Honor of the Congregation
• Tallis of the Shliach Tzibur (cantor);
• Tallis of the Shliach Tzibur during the afternoon and evening prayer’s;
• Tallis for those reciting Kaddish;
• Reciting Kaddish near the Shliach Tzibur;
• Tallis for those called up to the Torah;
• Tallis for one called to the Torah at Mincha (afternoon prayer);
• One who dons a Tallis out of respect for the congregation – should he recite a blessing?

6. Honor Due to the Sefer Torah when it is Removed and Returned to the Ark
• Honor due to the Torah and those that learn Torah;
• The order of carrying;
• Singing;
• The occasions when “על הכל” should be sung;
• The manner of singing “על הכל”.

7. Recitation of “בריך שמיה”
• The spread of paragraph “בריך שמיה”;
• Concealment of the Zohar and Kabbalah;
• Opinion of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai;
• Implication of the phrase “בר אלהין”;
• “סגידנא מקמא דיקר אוריתיה”
• Making Requests on Shabbos;
• Differing opinions on days when “בריך שמיה” should be recited;
• Differing opinions as to the correct order of “בריך שמיה”;
• Differing opinions as to the correct text of “בריך שמיה”.

8. The Saturday Night Prayer Service
• Uniqueness of this service in Ashkenaz;
• "לדוד ברוך" and "למנצח בנגינות";
• Song for "לדוד ברוך";
• Extending “והוא רחום” and “ברכו”;
• Reciting “יתברך וישתבח”;
• Chant for ברכו on Saturday night;
• ברכו on Saturday night during the month of Elul and the evening following Pesach;
• Reciting “ויתן לך”;
• The shorter text of “ויתן לך”;
• Reciting הבדלה in Shul;
• The Shliach Tzibur reciting הבדלה when no guests are present;
• “שיר המלות אשרי”.

9. Pronunciation of the “Cholam”
• Four pronunciations;
• The Cholam following the rules of dikduk (Hebrew grammar);
• The Cholam based on an old Talmudic text;
• The Cholam in ancient Ashkenaz;
• Cholam according to Rashi;
• Cholam according to the Gra;
• Poland, Galicia, and Eastern Hungry;
• Lithuania;
• North Germany and Holland;
• Frankfurt on the Main;
• Southern and Western Germany;
• Correct pronunciation even against those that ridicule.

10. Recitation of Hallel in Shul on the Night of Pesach
• Opinion of early authorities;
• Custom of the Arizal according to the Ashkenazi Cabbalists;
• Not to change from the original custom;
• Opinion of the Lithuanian Rabbi’s;
• Israel.

10a.Recitation of Hallel in Shul on the Night of Pesach (Revised Version)
• Hallel on Pesach in Egypt;
• Hallel in the Temple during the slaughtering and eating of the Paschal sacrifice;
• Hallel after the destruction of the temple: In a house of experts and a house of boors;
• Innovation from Tractate Soferim: Hallel in Shul with a blessing;
• Spain; areas of Spain; Yemen; France; Provence; Italy; Ashkenaz (Germany); Austria, Bohemia; Hungry; Poland; Lithuania; Israel.

11. Order of the Standing Tekios
• Obligation of the tekios, proper location and order;
• Babel, Israel, France, Spain, Yemen, Provence, Italy, Bohemia, Austria, Hungry, Poland, Lithuania, Ashkenaz (Germany);
• Tradition from the early Rabbi’s;
• Shevarim and Teruah are the same;
• To relate the essential aspect of the Law;
• Inconveniencing the congregation;
• Teruah following the order of the blessings on fast days;
• Gathering all the diverse orders;
• Equaling forty days;
• To confuse the prosecutor (lit. Satan);
• Unneeded pausing between the tekios;
• Hints of the Shofar;
• Not to sound the Shofar during the private prayer.

12. Sound of the Shevarim and Teruah
• Tradition of our father’s;
• Sound of the Teruah ccepted from earlier authorities;
• Connected Shevarim;
• “One Breath” – R’ Tam;
• “One Breath” – Terumas Hadeshen.

13. The ‘Shehecheyanu’ Blessing on Purim
• Astonishment on the Ashkenaz Minhag;
• Spain; Italy; Provence; France; Bohemia and Austria; Poland; Lithuania; Ashkenaz (Germany);
• Shehecheyanu on Shaloach Manos and the Purim meal.

14. The ‘Shehecheyanu’ Blessing at a Bris Milah
• The blessing is not mentioned in the Talmud;
• Babel; Ashkenaz (Germany); France; Provence; Spain; Bohemia; Poland; Lithuania; Hungry; Israel;
• The pain of the infant;
• Possibility of infant mortality;
• A common commandment that does not have a set time;
• An explicit partnership;
• A commandment that is upon the Jewish Court;
• A messenger does not recite a blessing;
• Oldest son.

15. First Shabbos that a Woman Who Gave Birth Goes Out
• Obligation for one who gave birth to give thanks;
• Argument that women should not recite a ‘Gomel’;
• Husband being called up to the Torah;
• Charity and ‘Misheberach’;
• Differing versions of the misheberach recited for a woman who gave birth;
• Joy that a woman has when going to Shul (for the first time after birth);
• Tune for “שמחים בצאתם” and Kaddish Tiskabel;
• Bringing the infant to the Shul;
• Small meal that a woman makes for her friends;
• The proper time period for the woman to go to Shul;
• Woman who is in mourning.

16. Giving the Name at the Babies Crib: ‘Chol Kreish’
• Rare and misunderstood customs;
• Order of the ‘Chol Kreish’;
• Origins of the custom;
• Time of giving the ‘Chol Kreish’;
• Inviting children;
• The infant’s crib;
• Order of recitation;
• Manner of reading the ‘Chol Kreish’;
• Giving fruit and sweets to children;
• Name given to girls at the ‘Chol Kreish’;
• Time of giving a name to a daughter;
• Time of giving a name to a daughter in other countries;
• Implication of the term ‘Chol Kreish’;
• Non holy name;
• Non Jewish name;
• Crib name.

Volume II

1. 248 words in the recitation of Shema
• 248 words versus the 248 limbs in the body;
• The 248 words protecting the body and soul;
• Every word has a limb corresponding to it;
• The quantity of limbs in a woman’s body;
• Those that are of the opinion that it is unnecessary to complete the 248 limbs when reciting Shema

2. Kel Melech Ne’eman before Shema
• The 248 include the words Kel Melech Ne’eman;
• Both Amen (after Ahava Rabba) and Kel Melech Ne’eman are included in the 248 words;
• Only Amen is needed to equal 248 words;
• The implication of the words Kel Melech Ne’eman;
• Does the recitation of Kel Melech Ne’eman constitute a Hefsek (disruption)?
• Responding Amen to the Shliach Tzibur’s blessing of Ahava Rabba;
• Reciting Amen to one’s own blessing of Ahava Rabba;
• Reciting Kel Melech Ne’eman in place of Amen;
• One is not permitted to change their Minhag (custom)

3. Repeating/Doubling the Words at the End of Shema
• Repetition from L’heyos lachem ley’lokim (להיות לכם לאלקים);
• Repetition from Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת);
• Repetition from Ani Hashem Elokeichem (אני ה' אלקיכם);
• Differing opinions regarding doubling the word Emes (אמת) in the phrase Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת);
• Repeating Hashem Elokeichem (ה' אלקיכם) without repeating the word Emes (אמת);
• Repetition by the Shliach Tzibur from Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת) before the individual concludes Shema;
• Opinion that an individual should repeat Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת);
• Conclusion of the three words by Ma’ariv (תפילת ערבית)

4. Forming a Sequence Between Shema and the Bracha that Follows it
• Concluding Shema and connecting it with the Bracha that follows without the repetition of any words;
• Raising the voice when saying the word Emes (אמת) after Shema;
• The congregation and Shliach Tzibur waiting at the end of Shema;
• Controversy over pausing between V’adir (ואדיר) and u’Mesukan (ומתוקן);
• Raising the voice while saying Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת) without repeating the words;
• One is not permitted to change from the Minhag of the Talmud and early Rabbinic sources;
• Arguments not to repeat words at the end of Shema

5. Customs Concerning the 248 Words Throughout the Ages
• Israel;
• Babel;
• France;
• Province;
• Spain and Northern Africa;
• Turkey;
• Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, and Hungry;
• Italy;
• Poland;
• Lithuania;
• Germany (Ashkenaz)

6. Washing Hands Before or After Kiddush
• Two opinions in Halacha (Jewish Law) and Custom (Minhag);
• Israel;
• Babel;
• Spain;
• Yemen (Teiman);
• France;
• Province;
• England
• Italy;
• Bohemia, Moravia, Austria;
• Poland;
• Lithuania;
• Garmany (Ashkenaz);
• One who washes should not recite kiddush;
• Washing the hands by Shacharis;
• Rinsing and then washing;
• Kiddush in the location that one eats;
• Washing the hands for fruit;
• The order of the meal;
• Kiddush being the conclusion of Ma’ariv;
• Daytime Kiddush;
• Reciting the Brachos of Shehecheyanu and Leshev BaSuccah between washing and eating

7. Announcing the Request for Rain
• Announcing V’sain Tal Umattar (ותן טל ומטר);
• Announcing “Request” (שאלה);
• Concept of “Request” (שאלה) in the Talmud and Rabbinic sources;
• Who makes the announcement?

8. Covering the Sefer Torah: Wimpel (וומפל)
• Nature of the covering;
• Case or cover?
• Who is permitted to sanctify the cover?
• Coverings created from used garments;
• Coverings created from women’s clothing;
• Women’s names embroidered upon holy vessels;
• Covering created from a babies diaper that is used at his Bris (circumcision);
• Borrowing the cover from the Torah to use for the Bris;
• Covenant of the Torah with the Covenant of Bris;
• Using the Wimpel for a different Mitzvah;
• How is the Wimple used at the Bris?

9. Preparing the Cover for the Torah
• Amoraim;
• Women;
• Non-married women;
• Mothers and other relatives (of the infant);
• Scribes and professional embroiderers;
• The material of the Wimple;
• Sewing and measurements;
• Decorating the cover: embroidery or painting/drawing;

10. Textual Versions of the Wimpel
• The accepted textual version that is written on the wimple;
• “to Torah, Chupah (marriage) and good actions;”
• Textual versions in other countries;
• Arranging the portions that are written on the wimple;
• Writing פסוקים (verses from the Torah) and embroidering them

11. Decorating the Wimple
• Decorating the Wimple – Honoring the Torah;
• Differing types of decorations and pictures;
• Decorating the name of the child and father;
• Decorating titles and last names (family names);
• Decorating the words: “נולד למזל טוב;”
• Decorating the date of the child’s birth;
• Decorating the words: “השם יגדלהו;”
• Decorating the word: “לתורה;”
• Decorating the word: “לחופה;”
• Decorating the words: “למעשים טובים;”
• Blessings and additional decorations;
• Embroidering pictures of animals

12. Bringing the Wimple to Shul – שול טראגן
• Bringing children to Shul in the days of Chazal (the Sages);
• The educational value for the child as a result of bringing the Wimple to Shul;
• The manner of bringing the Wimple;
• “מי שבירך” and the blessing for the Rabbi;
• Age of the child appropriate for bringing the Wimple: one month, half year, one year, one – two, two – three, three, three – four, four, five;
• Birthday, Bar Mitzvah, Marriage;
• Mistaken notions about bringing the Wimple(??)

13. The Spread of the Wimple and its Variations
• Poland;
• Italy;
• Bohemia and Moravia;
• Hungry;
• England;
• America;
• Israel;
• Change of name from ‘cover’ (מפה) to ‘Wimple’;

14. Manner of Folding the Wimple
• Folding and attaching (tying);
• Tying on the upper third or the bottom;
• Tying with two Wimples;
• The nice side of the Wimple: to which side?
• Tying the Torah with straps

15. Safeguarding the Wimple
• Jewish law concerning washing the Wimple;
• Washing the blood out of the Wimple;
• The Wimple as a Segulah (merit) for healing from sickess;
• The length of the Wimple;
• Gathering the Wimples after the Shoa (Final Solution/WWII)

16. Rolling the Wimple, the Individual that gives over the Wimple, Holding the עץ חיים
• Rolling/folding the wimple to give over to the one doing Gellilah (rolling);
• The Individual that gives over the Wimple to the Gollel;
• Others holding the עץ חיים as the Gollel rolls the Torah

Volume III

1. Recitation of Shema Using the Cantillation Notes
• The distinction between “Recitation” and “Praying;”
• Connection between reading Shema and reading the Torah;
• Reciting ‘holy verses’ (פסוקי קדושה) and the ‘13 attributes’ (י"ג מידות) by an individual;
• Reciting verses with the cantillation notes while learning Torah;
• The strictness of the Cabbalists on using cantillation notes;
• Reciting Shema with the cantillation notes;
• One who will become confused should read without cantillation notes;
• Reciting Shema using music/song (and not the cantillation notes);
• Israel, Spain, Yemen, Poland, Lithuania, Germany (Ashkenaz)

2. Raising one’s Voice while Reciting Shema
• Reciting Shema loud enough that ones ears hear what is being said;
• Reciting Shema in a measured tone;
• Reciting Shema quietly;
• ש"ץ reciting Shema aloud while the congregation recites silently;
• The first verse out loud;
• Israel, Babel, Yemen, Spain, North Africa, Southern Europe, France, Austria and Hungry, Poland, Lithuania, Germany (Ashkenaz)

3. Haftoroh Book (ספר אפטרתא) (in scroll form)
• The source for reading the Haftoroh;
• The Haftorah book;
• Written on parchment and rolled (like a Torah);
• Rolling the Haftoroh book with the coverings made for the Torah;
• Stakes/pillars for the Haftoroh book (עצי חיים);
• Adding vowels and accent marks (trup/טעמים);
• Lifting and rolling the Haftoroh book;
• An ark to guard the Haftoroh book

4. Haftoroh Book (in book form) on Parchment and Printed

• Folded parchment – book form;
• Haftoros in book form;
• Printed holy books;
• Compiling printed Haftoroh books;
• Haftoros as part of a complete printed Tanach;
• The printed form of G-d’s name in books;
• Reciting the Haftoroh by heart

5. Books of the Prophets after the Enactment of the Haftoroh Book
• The opinion of the Levush and Gra;
• The strength of the enactment due to “A time to act for G-d – the Torah is being destroyed”
• Enactment 1 – saying “Shalom”
• Writing “Shalom”
• Saying “Shalom” in a bath house;
• Enactment 2 – writing matters meant to be orally transmitted;
• Enactment 3 – Haftoroh book;
• Wealthy communities not acquiring the Prophets

6. The Haftoroh Book throughout the Generations
• Babel, Spain and North Africa, Israel, Yemen, Italy, France, Provence, Austria, Bohemia, Hungry, Poland, Lithuania, Germany (Ashkenaz)

7. The Permissibility of Writing Siddurim (prayer books)
• Praying by heart in the times of the sages;
• The first written Siddurim;
• The permissibility of writing Siddurim due to “A time to act”
• The opinion of those who do not allow Sidurim to be written;
• The constructiveness as a result of praying from a Siddur;
• The connection between writing Siddurim and writing Haftoroh books;

8. Cutting a Childs Hair without חאלאקא (upsherin)
• The time to celebrate cutting the hair of children;
• The Haircut of the Arizal’s son;
• Doubt and astonishment concerning upsherin;
• Age of haircutting in the Ashkenaz tradition

9. The ‘Sequence’ for Shavous Night
• Learning on the night of Shavous;
• The spread of the order of the learning;
• Content of the learning;
• The learning according to the order of the Shla;
• Megillos: Rus and Shir Hashirim;
• Learning Mishnah;
• Learning the 613 commandments;
• Learning the secrets/depths of the Torah;
• Learning with an assembly of people;
• 13 Kaddishim;
• The song/tune of the learning;
• Standing while reciting the ten commandments and generally while reciting the sequence of the night;
• Prayers connected with the learning;
• Location of the learning;
• Eating and drinking during learning;
• Expounding during the learning;
• Involvement of children in learning;
• Women and the night of Shavous;
• Immersing one’s self in the morning;
• Reciting the sequence on the second night of Shavous;
• Learning other topics (not of the ‘sequence’) on Shavous night;
• The exalted status resulting from reciting the sequence

10. Singing for the Groom when he is called up to the Torah
• Poetry and singing when the groom is called up to the Torah;
• Poetry of Spanish Jewry;
• Rabbi Avigdor Kara – author of the song “אחד יחיד ומיוחד קל”
• The song ‘אחד יחיד ומיוחד קל’;
• How אחד יחיד became written;
• The Parallel of אחד יחיד in Yiddish;
• The relationship between אחד יחיד and a groom;
• Recitation of אחד יחיד when the groom is called up to the Torah;
• The regression of the song ‘אחד יחיד’;
• Selected tunes to honor a groom

11. Chupas Tallis (Canopy for a wedding made from a Tallis)
• Spreading a veil before the giving of the Torah;
• Spreading part of a garment after the giving of the Torah;
• Spreading part of a garment in the days of the Judges and Prophets;
• Spreading a Tallis in the times of the Sages;
• The idea of Chupah in Tanach and the language of the Sages;
• Chupas Tallis in the Geonic era;
• Spreading a Tallis with Tzitzis (as apposed to a regular garment);
• Spreading the woman’s garment;
• Two coverings for a Chupah;
• The groom spreading the מטרון (garment for mourning) on the bride;
• Chupas Tallis among Spanish Jewry in later times;
• Chupas Tallis among Ashkenazic Jewry in later times;
• Chupas Tallis currently practiced by Spanish Jewry;
• Chupas Tallis currently practiced by Ashkenazic Jewry

12. Spreading a Sheet between Poles
• Spreading a sheet over poles for a Chupah;
• The source for a sheet on top of poles;
• Walking the bride to the canopy in the times of the sages;
• The bride entering under the canopy;
• Chupas Tallis in addition to the canopy;
• The marriage of Spanish Jews without a canopy;
• Doubts about the sheet spread over poles;
• The strength of Chupas Tallis;
• The implication of spreading the sheet;
• The Chupah of a widow;
• The use of a sheet or the curtain from the Ark;
• The pole bearers

Volume IV

1. Praying in a Relaxed and Slow Manner
• The prayer’s of Moses our Teacher – short and long;
• Rabbi Shimon Ben Yochai and his companions – without any prayer;
• The original Chasidim – lengthy praying;
• Controversy between the two approaches;
• The middle road: having a specific time to pray and reciting prayer in a relaxed manner;
• Praying in depth as a result of lengthening one’s prayer;
• Praying in one breath;
• Israel; Spain; Turkey; Babel; Yemen; France; Italy; Austria, Bohemia, and Hungry; Poland;
• The Chasidic movement in Poland and surrounding countries;
• Lithuania and Russia;
• Ashkenaz (Germany).

2. Waiting for the Greatest Person in the Congregation to Finish His Prayer
• The congregation being burdened by an individual lengthening his prayer;
• The congregation being burdened by the Shatz (prayer leader) lengthening his prayer;
• Burdening the congregation: perspective of degrading the honor of the congregation;
• Burdening the congregation to wait for the greatest individual;
• Slowing the congregation’s prayer;
• Waiting for the most esteemed of the congregation;
• Moving one’s feet to give the appearance of having concluded praying;
• Indicating to the Shatz not to wait;
• The Rav (Rabbi) instructing the congregation no to wait for him;
• A separate minyan (quorum of 10);
• If the congregation must wait for the Rav if he is taking an extraordinarily long time;
• Waiting after the recitation of Shema;
• Waiting for the Rav to enter the synagogue (before beginning).

3. The Rav’s Recitation from למען ירבו
• Forgetting the cantillation notes with the advent of cantors;
• The paragraph of Tzitzis: fluent or not?
• Remembering the departure from Egypt is a Torah law;
• The Rav blessing the congregation;
• Reciting verses of rebuke quietly;
• Reciting the paragraph of Tzitzis quietly;
• The custom of the European congregations.

4. One who Reads the Torah
• One who is called to the Torah reading himself;
• The cantor ascending with the one called up to the Torah;
• The cantor assisting the reader quietly;
• The cantor and the one called to the Torah both reading out loud;
• Only the cantor raising his voice during the Torah reading;
• The one called to the Torah reading quietly with the Cantor;
• The one called to the Torah remaining silent while the cantor reads;
• Opposition to the one called up remaining silent;
• The cantor dictating to the one called up from a Chumash;
• The one who calls to the cantor from a Chumash – 'דר ור לייאר';
• The reader glancing/using a Chumash while reading;
• A set cantor – the one who reads the Torah;
• The 'בעל קורא' (Torah reader) – a purpose in and of itself.

5. Bringing in a New Sefer Torah on Shabbos
• Bringing in the Torah by Moses our Teacher;
• The death of Moses our Teacher on Shabbos;
• The death of Moses our Teacher on Friday;
• Writing before Shabbos and death on Shabbos;
• The giving of the Torah on Shabbos;
• The prayer 'ישמח משה' (Moses rejoiced) to remember the giving of the Torah;
• Verses of prayer on Shabbos in commemoration of the giving of the Torah;
• Studying Torah on Shabbos;
• Bringing in a Torah on Shabbos;
• Ashkenaz (Germany); Austria, Moravia and Bohemia; Hungry; Poland; those from Spain and Yemen; Israel;
• Shavous; Simchas Torah; Hoshana Rabah; Chanukah; Purim; Pesach; Rosh Chodesh;
• Setting up a canopy on Shabbos in honor of the Torah;
• Walking with a Torah on Shabbos without an Eruv;
• Walking with a Torah on Shabbos on a Holiday without an Eruv;
• Weekdays.

6. The Time for the Evening Prayer on Shavous Eve
• The novel idea presented by Rabbi Yaakov Pollack: Kiddush at nightfall;
• Continuation of the old custom to recite Kiddush early in the day;
• Is it possible to fulfill “Temimos” at the commencement of Sefirah?
• Is it possible to fulfill “Temimos” at the conclusion of Sefirah?
• Spread of the custom to recite Kiddush at night;
• The extra novel idea presented by the Taz: Evening prayer’s at nightfall;
• Objections to reciting the evening prayer at nightfall;
• Spread of the custom to recite the evening prayer at nightfall;
• Reciting the evening prayer early in later times.

7. The Sound of the Tekiah
• From were do we know the Tekiah for Rosh Hashanah?
• ‘Peshutah’ – straight sound;
• ‘Peshutah’ – long sound;
• The Tekiah brings rejoicing;
• Rejoicing from the Tekiah of Rosh Hashanah;
• Raising and lowering the sound of the Tekiah.

8. Throwing Wheat on the Groom and Bride
• Roasted grain and nuts – custom of the Rabbi’s;
• Wheat and barley – custom of the early halachist’s (Rishonim);
• Additions to Wheat: salt, money, rye;
• Substitutes for wheat (in other countries): apples, rice, hopfen, nuts, almonds, sugar, poppy, sweets, confetti;
• Limiting degradation of food;
• Calling out “פרו ורבו!” (Be fruitful and multiply)!
• The time for throwing wheat;
• The one’s who throw the wheat.

9. Throwing Sweets in the Synagogue
• Fruits on Shavous;
• Fruits on Simchas Torah inside the Synagogue;
• Fruits on Simchas Torah outside of the Synagogue;
• Sweets among Spanish Jewry;
• Sweets in Eastern European Synagogue’s;
• Sweets being thrown by women;
• Throwing sweets at a Bar Mitzvah and its issues;
• Degrading food, eating before Kiddush, and carrying in a public domain;
• Those that hold back from throwing sweets.

10. Two Canopies on the Day of Marriage
• The wedding blessings – morning and evening;
• Who are our Rabbi’s in Tractate Soferim?
• Canopy in the morning and evening in the Geonic era;
• Canopy in the morning and evening during the time of the Rishonim (early Rabbi’s);
• Canopy in the morning and evening during the time of the Acharonim (later Rabbi’s);
• The morning Canopy – the beginning of entering the Canopy;
• The time period for the ‘Chupas Mein:’ the morning.

11. Chupas ‘Mein’
• Order of the Chupas Mein;
• Giving the bride over to the Groom;
• Taking the hand and joining arms among Easter European congregations;
• Sitting in the courtyard of the synagogue – custom of (?)Magentsa(?) and surrounding towns;
• Sitting in the wedding hall – custom of Worms and surrounding towns;
• Sitting on a chair or a bench;
• Sitting under a covering or on a platform;
• Candles and torches;
• Musical instruments;
• The accepted tune used for the Chupas Mein;
• Enactments regarding eating and drinking;
• Connotation/pronunciation of the term ‘Mein’;
• Differences in customs regarding the Mein among small congregations;
• Discontinuing the Chupas Mein in large cities;
• Chupas Mein in later generations (today).


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